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Most losses due to blackleg occur when cattle are between the ages of 6 months and 2 years (Merck 2005; Sarah 2013). Typically, cattle that have a high feed intake and are well conditioned tend to be most susceptible. Lesions develop without any history of wounds, although bruising or excessive exercise may precipitate disease in some cases (Merck 2005). Blackleg seldom affects cattle older than 2 years of age, most likely due to immunity induced by vaccines or natural exposure. However, sporadic cases do occur in cattle older than 2 years and are often associated with the reuse of needles for multiple injections. It is also indicated blackleg to be a problem in cattle less than 4 months old that do not receive adequate passive immunity through colostrums (Alabama 2013).
Regarding blackleg treatment, farmers use modern (veterinary) drugs alongside traditional (herbal) remedies immediately after diagnosing the cases. Antibiotics like Procaine penicillin and Oxytetracyclines are commonly used in areas where blackleg is major concern, and treatment regime may extend from 3 to 5 days depending on severity of the disease. Control relies mainly on vaccination carried out at the onset of an outbreak using the whole broth culture suspension of Clostridium chauvoei vaccine (local isolate) produced by the National Veterinary Institute (NVI, Ethiopia).
where C = the total financial costs, Md is the mortality losses, B = the beef production losses, M = the milk production losses, Wop = the work output losses, V = the vaccination costs (because the cost of vaccine is born by farmers) and T = the treatment costs. Since blackleg is an acute disease, beef loss was considered insignificant and this variable was not included in the model.
The annual cumulative incidence of blackleg in female and male animals and the number of lactating cows and draft oxen during the study period were obtained from the survey data. The percentage of milk production and draught output losses in the study groups was calculated using the formula given in Eq. 2 (Bennett and Ijpelaar 2005; Kivaria et al. 2007).
Q = quantity of production lost [milk (L)/lactation, draft output in days]; D = Parameters of the breed types without blackleg (Milk off-take/lactation, annual draft output) and; I = cumulative incidence.
Financial losses estimations on milk yield and draft power output due to blackleg occurrence was comparable with the speculations of veterinary literatures indicating equivalent effect of the disease in cattle productivity (Merck 2005; Radostits et al. 2006; Blood and Radostits 1995). Thus, discussants of the study districts were knowledgeable in identifying livestock problems and able to present, share, and analyze their knowledge to find appropriate solutions which is in line with discussants from different parts of Ethiopia (Eshetu 2003; Rufael et al. 2008; Tadesse 2003; Bereket et al. 2013).
In the present study, incidence of blackleg in crossbred animals was higher than local zebu breeds. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The higher incidence in crossbreds might be due to the genetic difference in susceptibility to disease. Females of both breeds had higher cumulative incidence than males, which is contrary to the report of Sultana et al. (2008) who reported a higher incidence of the disease in males. The variation might be due to the difference in grazing practices. Females in the study districts were kept extensively grazing in the fields which exposes them to easy access for bacterial spores in comparison to male animals which are harnessed in the yoke for ploughing purpose and kept indoor many of the times. However, further study would be necessary to determine the underpinning reasons for the difference in susceptibility between breed types and sex.
Blackleg causes higher financial losses in crossbred cattle in most production parameters when compared to local zebu breeds. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08); suggesting that the disease uniformly exerts its impact on both breed categories. The financial loss had a linear relationship with the incidence of disease in each breed type (the higher incidence of blackleg the higher financial losses were estimated in both breeds).
The reduced work output of draft oxen due to blackleg was an important loss for the mixed crop livestock farming system of the study area which was estimated based on the daily market price of traction services. Morbidity of draught oxen leads to reduced crop production through reduction in the area that can be cultivated and lowered yields due to inefficient land preparation and timing. Moreover, the reduced milk production due to blackleg could have high impact on the daily household income generation source of herders in study area.
The estimations of financial benefit of blackleg control through planned annual vaccinations show that the net benefit per head for crossbred cattle was higher when compared with local zebu breeds. The high MRR of 9 (900 %) in the current analysis could signify that the investment in planned vaccination to control blackleg would result in high benefits to farmers, which would in turn lead to an efficient allocation of resources (Rushton 2009; Legesse et al. 2005; Evans 2008). However, this high MRR percentage clearly reflected that the cost incurred by farmers for the control was only that of the vaccination cost. Thus, the minimum costs farmers incur to vaccinate their animals; they would potentially keep away from costly losses resulting from death, illness, reduced fertility and productivity due to the disease.
Overall, this study is the first in its kind to address financial impact of blackleg at mixed crop-livestock farming community in Ethiopia. The study realized indispensable and policy-relevant findings with regard to the disease occurrence and its impact on small holder cattle herders. However, lack of related studies significantly reserved researchers not to evaluate their findings with the existing disease scenario. In addition, mortality rate of blackleg in our findings is smaller when compared to mortality reports in veterinary literatures, indicating unique feature of the disease in Ethiopia that needs further researches to discover the existing disease circumstances.
However, L. maculans is the virulentA form which causes infection (and can result in a disease) More species causing blackleg that infects canola from the seedling stage onward. It progressively damages the crop as the season progresses, by girdling stems and restricting moisture and nutrient uptake, and eventually leading to yield loss. Leptosphaeria maculans was first detected in 1975 in north east Saskatchewan and in 1987 in Ontario. Since then L. maculans has become widespread throughout western and eastern Canada.
It is not unusual to observe blackleg symptoms in canola crops, even when resistant cultivarsCultivars are variants in a species developed through the intervention of humans (despite the term 'variety' often being incorrectly used to describe this). Cultivars can be open-pollinated type, hybrid, synthetic, composite, etc. More are grown. It is important to be familiar with blackleg symptoms, the disease cycle, and to know the disease management practices that prevent yield and seed quality losses.
The L. maculans fungus overwinters on infected canola residue. The spores produced from diseased stubble, especially the infected lower stem and upper root pieces, are the major source of the pathogenA disease-causing organism (such as a fungus or bacteria). More that contributes to widespread field infection and yield loss. In the spring, the fungus produces fruiting bodies, called pseudotheciaFruiting bodies produced by fungus which cause disease (as the L. maculanspseudothecia can be produced on infected canola residue, which can then infect live canola plants nearby). It is plural for pseudothecium. More and pycnidiaA type of fruiting body (produced by a pathogen, such as the blackleg-causing Leptosphaeria maculans pathogen) that appears as pepper-like spots (which are spore-bearing structures) within lesions. More, on infected canola residue. PseudotheciaFruiting bodies produced by fungus which cause disease (as the L. maculanspseudothecia can be produced on infected canola residue, which can then infect live canola plants nearby). It is plural for pseudothecium. More may continue to be produced on infected residue for several years, or until the infected residue breaks down.
During the growing season, the pathogenA disease-causing organism (such as a fungus or bacteria). More also produces another type of fruiting body called pycnidiaA type of fruiting body (produced by a pathogen, such as the blackleg-causing Leptosphaeria maculans pathogen) that appears as pepper-like spots (which are spore-bearing structures) within lesions. More that appear as pepper-like spots within lesions. From the pycnidiaA type of fruiting body (produced by a pathogen, such as the blackleg-causing Leptosphaeria maculans pathogen) that appears as pepper-like spots (which are spore-bearing structures) within lesions. More ooze masses of tiny spores called pycnidiosporesMasses of tiny spores (such as those from the blackleg-causing Leptosphaeria maculans pathogen, the which ooze out from pycnidia in a viscous pink liquid). More. These spores spread short distances by rain splash and wind, and cause secondary infection within a crop. Infected stubble can continue to produce pycnidiosporesMasses of tiny spores (such as those from the blackleg-causing Leptosphaeria maculans pathogen, the which ooze out from pycnidia in a viscous pink liquid). More for three to five years. 781b155fdc